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  1. Themes

Operational Models

Cash and voucher assistance (CVA) can be delivered to people in crises more efficiently, effectively, and with more accountability, if responding agencies work together. But we need to generate evidence around which operational models work best for collaboration in different contexts.

CaLP’s State of the World’s Cash Report identifies different types of operational model, including consortia and alliances, shared cash delivery mechanisms, single agency cash delivery, and integration of systems.

“The overall structure through which agencies work jointly…to deliver cash and voucher programming…in situation response and analysis, program design and implementation.”

CaLP’s working definition of an operational model.

Scaling up CVA offers opportunities to transform how humanitarian aid is delivered. It has implications for the roles of different agencies within various operational models, and the potential for models to link to social protection systems. It will also impact the nature of partnerships with financial service and technology providers, and how different models interact with other forms of assistance, beyond cash.

Current priorities

Since late 2016, CaLP has been coordinating a learning agenda to help answer these questions:

  1. What operational models are available to agencies implementing CVA?
  2. How do different models improve the efficiency, effectiveness and accountability of CVA in different contexts?
  3. Which operational models are most appropriate in which contexts?

CaLP will continue to collate and disseminate the evidence base for operational models.

CaLP is also a partner in the Cash Monitoring, Evaluation, Accountability, and Learning Organizational Network (CAMEALEON) consortium, led by Norwegian Refugee Council, which is responsible for independent monitoring and evaluation of WFP’s Multi-Purpose Cash Assistance (MPCA) in Lebanon. This includes research and analysis regarding value for money and accountability in the operational model.

Thematic lead


Oxfam in Ghairung, Ghorka

MEAL in Emerging Operational Models


29 October 2019 / English

Looking Back and Looking Forward: Somalia Drought Response: Cash and Voucher Assistance


This report summarizes the discussions that took place during a one-day learning event on 11th June 2019. The event brought together 27 people from national and international NGOs, the UN, and donors to discuss progress, reflect on cash and voucher (CVA) assistance in Somalia and identify priorities for...


3rd Grand Bargain Cash Work Stream Workshop – Co-Conveners’ Report


The third Grand Bargain (GB) Cash work stream Workshop was held at WFP Headquarters in Rome on 16th-17th May 2019, hosted by WFP and DFID. Over 85 participants attended the workshop, representing 60 donor and humanitarian organisations and multilateral agencies, and including representatives from the...


Consultation on Cash and Voucher Assistance to the Main Spanish NGOs Funded by Aecid – Executive Summary


This executive report summarizes the results obtained from a study of the cash and voucher assistance (CVA) practices of eight Spanish NGOs in the field of humanitarian assistance. You can read the full report in Spanish here.


Safer Cash Toolkit (English)

Guidelines and Tools

The Safer Cash Toolkit, funded by USAID, is designed to capture the minimum amount of protection-related information in emergency settings to ensure that organizations can make informed decisions on how to design, implement and adjust CVA programs at the field level to prevent and minimize harm. The Safer...


Analysis of social and power dynamics of stakeholders for the implementation of multi-year MultiPurpose Cash Transfers in North Mali


Six INGOs (Hunger Against Action, Danish Refugee Council, Handicap International, Oxfam, Solidarités International and International Rescue Committee) have been implementing a MultiPurpose Cash Transfers programme in Mali; the second phase of this social safety net intervention targets the communes the...


Cash for Shelter in Kenya – A Field Experience


A study of a cash for shelter project in Kalobeyei that highlights how UNHCR uses cash assistance to help the refugees to transition to more durable solutions, in this case, integration with the host community. The project presents a paradigm shift from the traditional refugee camp planning process.

December 2018

How Cash and Food Transfers and Asset Creation Can Contribute to Women’s Empowerment: Learning from Niger, Kenya and Zimbabwe


From ‘Collected Papers on Gender and Cash Transfer Programmes in Humanitarian Contexts’. Existing gender inequalities mean that disasters and conflicts impact women, men, girls and boys differently. Cash based assistance is one of the most significant developments in humanitarian assistance in recent...

September 2018

Greece Cash Alliance: Building an Evidence Base on Operational Models for the Delivery Of CTP


The primary aim of this case study is to map out aspects of the Greece Cash Alliance (GCA) operational model influencing key drivers of quality (effectiveness, efficiency and accountability) in the delivery of multipurpose cash grants (MPGs). The GCA was launched in April 2017 with funding from ECHO, in...

March 2018

Emergency Response Capacity (ERC) Consortium – Nigeria: Building an evidence base on operational models for the delivery of CTP


This case study aims to review and map out how aspects of the Enhanced Response Capacity (ERC) consortium model have influenced key drivers of quality (effectiveness, efficiency and accountability) in the consortium’s Nigeria pilot. Formed at the global level in 2015, the ERC Consortium is comprised of...

March 2018