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End-line Survey Report: Cash transfers for rapid livelihoods recovery of volcano-displaced families in Vanuatu

30 April 2019 — By Margaret A. Cargill Philanthropies, New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade, Oxfam

This report documents and analyses the results of an end-line survey of the cash transfer programme (CTP), “Cash Transfers for Rapid Livelihoods Recovery of Volcano-displaced Families in Vanuatu” in Sanma province between October 2018 and March 2019. The programme was implemented by Oxfam in Vanuatu (OiV) with financial support from the New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Aid and Trade (MFAT) and the Margaret A. Cargil Foundation (US). The programme had an overall goal of providing short term assistance to victims of Manaro Volcano who have been displaced from their homes in Ambae.

The end-line survey was conducted March 2019 with the major objective of measuring the changes achieved as compared with the baseline survey conducted in October 2018 before the implementation of the cash transfer programming was initiated. Key areas of measurement include: program’s progress and impact based on set indicators.

The end-line survey employed quantitative data collection methodology with the same tools used for the baseline survey. It also collected qualitative data, which was not adopted during the baseline. The end-line survey was conducted in two islands of Sanma province and seven area councils. A total of 357 respondents participated in the household surveys, among whom were 63% women, 79% of whom were evacuees from Ambae and 21% were hosts. Qualitative data was collected from six groups that included men, women, elderly, disability and youth groups.

Findings from the baseline reveal that the basic need of the displaced population was food and money. 61% of the respondents had no source of income. 80% of the respondents stated they had good access to markets (i.e. were within close proximity to points of purchase). Food Consumption Score (FCS), indicated that the majority of respondents – 74% were within the acceptable range.

However, the number at risk of falling into food insecurity (16.78%) or actually food insecure (8.92%) remained significant. As markets were widely available, but income is generally in deficit among these households the risk of food insecurity could be assumed to be access related.

In this connection, findings from the end-line revealed that even though basic needs of the respondents has not changed despite the cash grant disbursed, CTP cash grant has helped improve beneficiaries’ food and livelihood security. In terms of food security, data shows up to 14,7% improvement of reached beneficiaries who have left the “poor” and “borderline” in the food consumption score from the time the baseline assessment was conducted to the time the end-line assessment was conducted. In terms of livelihoods security, up to 86% of respondents were engaged in income generating activities back at their homes before their displacement. Upon their relocation, baseline data showed 61% without a means of livelihood. After receiving three rounds of cash grants, the figure has dropped to 47% showing a 14% improvement compared to baseline. Interestingly, 17% of those who did not have a means of livelihood before the displacement have used the cash grants they received to start small businesses.

Findings from the end-line also revealed that 29% of the respondents lived in urban areas around Luganville. In comparison, 44% of responded were covered in Luganville during the baseline survey which indicates that the majority of evacuees have moved to rural and peri-urban areas in Sanma province throughout the program. Additionally, the majority of people have started to live on their own property (41%), whereas only 11% of respondents lived on their own property during baseline survey. Over 65% of people stated that they would like to stay in Sanma province or remain residence in Sanma province as well as in Ambae.

Overall, the project achieved its overall goal of providing short term assistance to 2,769 families (2,165 evacuee families and and up to 604 host families) who were affected by the Manaro volcano. 91% of respondents were satisfied with the cash distribution process and the cash grants they received.