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Gender and Inclusion

Pre-existing inequalities mean that crises may have a different impact according to gender, age, abilities and other individual or context-specific characteristics.

There is an increasing demand from stakeholders that, as CVA continues its rapid growth, it should take greater account of gender and inclusion issues because,  ‘Gender-responsive CVA which recognizes existing disparities and addresses the needs of all crisis-affected people equally, has the potential to positively impact women and girls by improving their protection and promoting their empowerment, while also strengthening sector-specific impacts which can lead to more resilient and empowered households and communities in recovery from crises.’ (Guidelines for Grand Bargain Cash and Gender Workstream).  The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the urgency for action as it has affected women and excluded groups more severely through increasing care-giving, reducing employment opportunities disproportionately, exposing women to greater financial hardship and increased gender based violence.


The CALP Network continues to build on the 2018, our #GenderCash Symposium in Nairobi and the commitment enshrined in the Agenda for Collective Action that resulted.  The SOWC 2020 report found notable progress in work on gender and CVA, identified as a critical evidence gap in the last report: new guidelines have been produced on gender and CVA and gender and GBV and efforts have focused attention on synthesising and identifying more robust evidence.  The initial focus on GBV is now shifting towards gender equality and to better programming that can move beyond gender sensitivity towards becoming gender responsive – and even gender transformative.  However, while we see progress globally at the technical level, this has not yet translated into consistent changes in planning, implementation and monitoring.

Current priorities

We will continue to work closely with the Grand Bargain Cash sub-workstream leads, CARE and UN Women, to help deliver the sub-workstream workplan. The CALP Network will continue to encourage cash actors to widen their focus to be more inclusive, and champion a fuller understanding of how CVA can go beyond the notion of ‘do no harm’ towards appropriately addressing these socio-economic inequalities through the provision of other services and support.



An Innovative way of Humanitarian Assistance using Mobile Money Transfer in Bangladesh


A video detailing Oxfam’s use of mobile money transfer in Bangladesh.


Examining Protection and Gender in Cash and Voucher Transfers – Report


With cash and voucher transfers increasing as a form of humanitarian assistance, the World Food Programme (WFP) and the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) teamed up to study the potential protection and gender impact of such transfers. While much research had been done about economic and market impacts of cash and...


Cash Emergency Preparedness (CEP) Assessment: Myanmar

Policy paper

Cash transfer programming (CTP) in emergencies is not new in Myanmar, with the first examples going back at least to Cyclone Nargis in 2009. CTP has also been used in humanitarian settings such as Kachin State. However, CTP is not yet being widely used for the current conflict context in Rakhine State due...


Enhancing WFP’s Capacity and Experience to Design, Implement, Monitor, and Evaluate Vouchers and Cash Transfer Programmes: Study summary


With support from the Government of Spain, and in partnership with the World Food Programme (WFP), researchers from the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) evaluated four pilot projects to assess the comparative performance of cash transfers, food payments, and vouchers on household food...


Impact Evaluation: Evaluation of the impact of food for assets on livelihood resilience in Nepal


This evaluation, conducted by an independent team between January and July 2013, assessed the outcomes and impacts of the food-for-assets (FFA) components of two WFP programmes in Nepal: country programme (CP) 100930 (2002–2007) and protracted relief and recovery operation (PRRO) 106760 (2007–2010)....


Impact Evaluation of Cash and Food Transfers for the Seasonal Emergency Safety Net in Hajjah and Ibb Governorates, Yemen Endline Report


This report is the final impact evaluation of the World Food Programme’s Cash and Food transfer program in Yemen. The program operated in Hajjah and Ibb governorates within the larger Emergency Safety Net (ESN), which provides assistance to qualifying households in rural Yemen. The report details the...


Gender Impact Analysis: Unconditional Cash Transfers in South Central Somalia


The Cash Consortium is a group of four NGOs (ACF, Adeso, DRC and Save the Children) that came together in mid-2011 to coordinate their aid response and use unconditional cash grants to meet the basic food and non-food needs of the most vulnerable households in South Central Somalia. The primary objective...

21 December 2012

Cash, Food, or Vouchers? Evidence from a randomized experiment in Northern Ecuador


The debate over whether to provide food assistance and the form that this assistance should take has a long history in economics. Despite the ongoing debate, little rigorous evidence exists that compares food assistance in the form of cash versus in-kind. This paper uses a randomized evaluation in...

December 2012